Jupiter at opposition 9 May 2018

On May 9 the planet Jupiter will be what is known as ‘at opposition’.  This event, which occurs every 399 days, happens when Jupiter is at its closest to the Earth and at its brightest.  To the naked eye it will be a brilliant white object, three times brighter than the brightest star. Features such as coloured bands and the famous great red spot can easily be seen with a small telescope.

Jupiter

Jupiter through a telescope – image from NASA

What is opposition? 

The series of diagrams below show Jupiter and Earth at different points in their orbits around the Sun. The Earth takes just over 365 days to complete an orbit. Jupiter, which is further away from the Sun and moves more slowly in its orbit, takes nearly 12 years.

In the first diagram, below, Jupiter is at its closest point to the Earth  As seen from Earth, Jupiter is in the opposite direction from the Sun. This is why it is called opposition. All night between sunset and sunrise, Jupiter is above the horizon and it reaches its highest point in the sky in the middle of the night. Jupiter is at its brightest at opposition because it is at its closest to Earth and the entire sunlit side is facing Earth.

 

In the diagram below, 133 days later, the Earth has completed more than one-third of its journey around the Sun, whereas Jupiter has done less than 3%. Jupiter appears less bright because it is further away from Earth and not all the sunlit side of Jupiter is facing us.  In addition, Jupiter appears fairly close to the Sun and for most of the time is only above the horizon during the daytime, when it is very difficult to see against the brightness of the daytime sky.

199.5 days later the Earth has completed more than half its journey around the Sun, whereas Jupiter has done just over 4.6%. At this point, which is known as a conjunction of Jupiter and the Sun, Jupiter is only above the horizon in the daytime and is impossible for an amateur astronomer to see without specialist equipment, because it is so close to the Sun.

399 days later, the Earth has caught up with Jupiter, so the two are level again in their orbits. Jupiter is once again at opposition.

 

 

How bright is Jupiter at opposition?

When discussing the brightness of objects in the sky, astronomers use a scale called magnitude, where the lower the magnitude the brighter the object.

The scale was invented by the ancient Greek astronomers who classified all the stars visible to the naked eye into six magnitudes. The brightest stars were said to be of magnitude 1, whereas the faintest were of magnitude 6, which is the limit of human visual perception (without the aid of a telescope). Today, the magnitude scale is applied to all objects in the sky, not just stars, and the magnitude of the very brightest objects is less than zero. The brightest objects in the sky are (obviously) the Sun, which has a magnitude of -26.7, followed by the Moon, which has a magnitude of -12.7, at a typical full Moon.

The scale is defined so that a decrease in magnitude by 1 means an increase in brightness by a factor of 2.512. Therefore, a decrease in magnitude by 2 would mean an increase in brightness by 6.31, because 2.512 x 2.512 = 6.31. So, for example:

  • a star of magnitude 1 is 15.9 times brighter than a star of magnitude 4. This is because 2.512 x 2.512 x 2.512 = 15.9.
  • a star of magnitude 1 is 100 times brighter than a star of magnitude 6. This is because 2.512 x 2.512 x 2.512 x 2.512 x 2.512 = 100

Jupiter moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun; this means that its closest distance to Earth is different at each opposition. Therefore, as shown below, the brightness at each opposition will vary as well.

The diagram above shows that if an opposition occurs where Jupiter is closest to the Sun (point A,) Jupiter will also be closest to the Earth and thus brighter than an opposition which occurs where Jupiter is furthest from the Sun (point B) . In the diagram the elongation of Jupiter’s orbit has been exaggerated. 

The closest Jupiter can get to Earth is 589 million km; when this happens it shines with a magnitude of -2.9. On the May 9 opposition, it will be 658 million km from Earth and will shine with a magnitude of -2.5, making it three  times more luminous than the brightest star Sirius, which has a magnitude of -1.4.  For comparison, the table below shows the average magnitude at opposition of the planets which lie outside the Earth’s orbit.

 

Data from https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/

How Does the brightness of Jupiter compare to Venus? 

For the two inner planets Venus and Mercury, the situation is a little different. They can never be at opposition because they lie inside the Earth’s orbit. This is shown in the diagram below for Venus.

Venus Phases

As Venus orbits the Earth it goes through phases, similar to those of the Moon. However, because Venus is so small, they are only visible through a telescope. When Venus is closest to the Earth, the point known as its inferior conjunction – labelled A in the diagram – it is almost impossible to see because it is almost in a direct line of sight with the Sun and its sunlit side is facing away from Earth. Venus is actually at its brightest just before and just after inferior conjunction,  points B and F, when it has a magnitude of around -4.5.

Although Venus appears brighter than Jupiter, unlike Jupiter it is never above the horizon all night. At point B it is only clearly visible for few hours before sunrise where it is known as the Morning Star. At point F it is only visible for a few hours after sunset where it is known as the Evening Star.

Properties of Jupiter

As nearly all my readers will know, Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. Its diameter is on average 140,000 km which is roughly 11 times that of the Earth, making its volume 1320 times larger (Williams 2017). It is its large size which causes Jupiter to appear brighter than Mars despite it being more than three times further from the Sun.

Unlike the smaller inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) which have large iron cores surrounded by rocky materials, Jupiter is mainly composed of gas. It is not known if it has a solid core, but if one exists it will only make up a small proportion of the planet. Being made up of largely of gas means that its density is only 25% that of the Earth. Even so, its mass is still 320 times greater, making it more massive than all the other planets, moons, asteroids and comets in the Solar System put together.

Exploration of Jupiter

So far nine unmanned spacecraft have visited Jupiter. The first was Pioneer 10 in 1973 shown below.

Pioneer_10_at_Jupiter

Image from NASA

This was followed by Pioneer 11 (1974), Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (both 1979), Ulysses (1992), Galileo – which went into orbit around Jupiter between 1995 and 2003, Cassini (2000) and New Horizons (2007). The latest mission Juno (shown below) arrived in 2016 and is currently orbiting the planet studying its atmosphere, magnetic and gravitational fields. For more details on the Juno mission see my post Mission Juno.

Juno at Jupiter

Image from NASA

Jupiter’s moons

Jupiter has its own mini “solar system” of over 60 moons in orbit around it. The four largest moons were discovered by Galileo in 1610 and one of them, Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, is bigger than the planet Mercury. The innermost moon Io is the most volcanically active object known to exist anywhere. Europa, the second innermost, is of particular interest because its surface is composed of ice underneath which are thought to lie oceans of liquid water, warmed by a process called tidal friction. Many scientists think that Europa is one of the most promising places in the Solar System to find extraterrestrial life.

NASA  and the European Space Agency (ESA) are developing missions to Jupiter’s moons, will tell us a lot more about them . The ESA mission is called  (JUICE)  which stands for JUpiter ICy moon Explorer and the NASA mission is called Europa Clipper. Both missions are scheduled for launch in 2022.

Jupiter Moons

The four large moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto -Image from NASA

I hope you’ve enjoyed this post and that you will have a clear night on the daysaround 9 May to see this sight.

Notes

In the discussion of magnitudes all the values quoted are visual magnitudes. This is how bright the objects are in light of wavelength of 540 nanometres, which is in the green part of the spectrum. The values at other wavelengths will be different for different objects. For details on light and the way the eye sees different wavelength as different colours see https://thesciencegeek.org/2015/09/30/why-is-the-sky-blue/

Reference

Williams, D. R. (2017) Jupiter Fact Sheet, Available at:http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/jupiterfact.html (Accessed: 28 April 2018).

Mission Juno

On 4 July 2016 the NASA spacecraft Juno will arrive at Jupiter after a 5 year journey. It will be the ninth space probe to visit the planet. The first was Pioneer 10, which flew past in December 1973, (see notes). Juno will go into an orbit around the planet which will take it close to its poles.  It will remain in that orbit until the end of the mission when it will be deliberately steered into Jupiter so that it can take measurements as it descends through the atmosphere.  It will be destroyed by the intense temperatures and pressures, but the alternative would just be to leave it in orbit forever as a dead spacecraft, missing the chance for it to find new scientific information as it makes its final descent.

Juno at Jupiter

Image from NASA

As nearly all my readers will know, Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. Its diameter is on average 140,000 km which is roughly 11 times that of the Earth, making its volume 1320 times larger (Williams 2016). Unlike the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) which have large iron cores surrounded by rocky materials, Jupiter is mainly composed of gas. It is not known if it has a solid core, but if one exists it will only make up a small proportion of the planet. Being made up of largely of gas means that its density is only 25% that of the Earth. Even so, its mass is still 320 times greater, making it more massive than all the other planets, moons, asteroids and comets in the Solar System put together.

Jupiter

Image from NASA

It has a magnetic field which is 15 times stronger than the Earth’s and extends millions of kilometres into space. The magnetic field traps electrically charged particles so that they are confined into a ring-shaped structured around the planet. These trapped particles emit electromagnetic radiation. This causes Jupiter to be surrounded by deadly radiation belts, which would be lethal to any space travellers who ventured too close to the planet.

Jupiter’s moons

It has its own mini “solar system” of over 60 moons in orbit around it. The four largest moons were discovered by Galileo in 1610 and one of them, Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, is bigger than the planet Mercury. The innermost moon Io is the most volcanically active object known to exist anywhere. Europa, the second innermost, is of particular interest because its surface is composed of ice underneath which are thought to lie oceans of liquid water, warmed by a process called tidal friction. Many scientists think that Europa is one of the most promising places in the Solar System to find extraterrestrial life. Unfortunately Juno will not be studying Jupiter’s moons. However the European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a mission called JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) to study Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

Jupiter Moons

The four large moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Image from NASA

Unlocking Jupiter’s secrets

Despite being visited eight times by previous spacecraft, there is much that is unknown about Jupiter. The Juno website (NASA 2016) states that the mission will achieve the following:

  • ‘Determine how much water is in Jupiter’s atmosphere, which helps determine which planet formation theory is correct (or if new theories are needed)
  • Look deep into Jupiter’s atmosphere to measure composition, temperature, cloud motions and other properties
  • Map Jupiter’s magnetic and gravity fields, revealing the planet’s deep structure
  • Explore and study Jupiter’s magnetosphere near the planet’s poles, especially the auroras – Jupiter’s northern and southern lights – providing new insights about how the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affects its atmosphere.’

The key instruments on the probe are:

  • A microwave receiver which measures radio-waves with very short wavelengths knows as microwaves. These are the only waves able to travel through the thick atmosphere on Jupiter. This instrument will measure the abundance of water and ammonia and the temperature profile in the deeper layers of the atmosphere, up to 600 km below the top.
  • An instrument which can take pictures in infrared which will be used to map regions of high temperature known as hot spots in the top of the atmosphere.

Jupiter HotspotIR

A picture of a hot spot taken in infrared light – Image from NASA

  • A magnetometer to accurately map Jupiter’s magnetic field.
  • An instrument to measure small fluctuations in the probe’s speed and direction of travel as it orbits. The small fluctuations are caused by unevenness in Jupiter’s gravitational field due to the way that mass is distributed inside the planet.
  • A visible light camera/telescope called Junocam. This is only expected to survive  seven orbits around Jupiter because of the planet’s damaging radiation and magnetic field.
  • Instruments to measured charged particles near the poles of Jupiter.

Why the name Juno?

Juno stands for JUpiter Near-polar Orbiter,

The planet Jupiter is named after the Roman king of the gods. In Roman mythology, Jupiter drew a veil of clouds around himself to hide his mischief. Jupiter had a wife, the goddess Juno, the warlike queen of the gods. According to legends Juno was able to look through Jupiter’s clouds and see his true nature.

“The Juno spacecraft will also look beneath the clouds to see what the planet is up to, not seeking signs of misbehavior, but helping us to understand the planet’s structure and history.” (NASA 2016)

Jupiter and Juno

Jupiter and Juno Image from Wikimedia commons

How much has Juno cost?

Missions to other planets are expensive and this is no exception – so far the spacecraft has cost $1.1 billion (Lufkin 2016). Most of this was spent before its launch in 2011. The total cost in 2016 dollars will be around $1.3 billion. Although this is a large amount of money, it only works out at about $4 for each person in the US and is less than 1% of the cost (in 2016 dollars) of the Apollo programme to put a man on the Moon.

Further reading

I hope you’ve enjoyed this post. I hope that over the next couple of years Juno will make lots of exciting discoveries, which will enable us to find out more about the giant planet. If you want to find out more about the Juno mission visit the Juno website:

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/juno/main/index.html

Notes

1  The following spacecraft have visited Jupiter: Pioneer 10 (1973) shown below, Pioneer 11 (1974), Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (both 1979), Ulysses (1992), Galileo (1995-2003) Cassini (2000), New Horizons (2007). Galileo spent 8 years orbiting the planet; the other spacecraft flew past the planet on the way to view other targets.

Pioneer_10_at_Jupiter

Image from NASA

References

Lufkin, B. (2016) NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Is Scheduled to Arrive at Jupiter on July 4, Available at:http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/nasa-s-juno-spacecraft-is-scheduled-to-arrive-at-jupiter-on-july-4/ (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

NASA (2016) Juno Overview, Available at:http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/juno/overview/index.html (Accessed: 16 June 2016).

Williams, D. R. (2016) Jupiter Fact Sheet, Available at:http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/jupiterfact.html (Accessed: 14 June 2016).